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Category: Introductions (Page 1 of 2)

Peter of Alexandria (and Balsamon and Zonaras)

Peter of Alexandria

We are now on our second of three days reading Peter of Alexandria. Peter of Alexandria was was Bishop of Alexandria from 300 to 311; his episcopate thus covered the Diocletianic Persecution, also called the Great Persecution — that last, great persecution of Christians by the Roman imperial powers that would leave an indelible mark upon the church’s identity and self-image ever after.

Eusebius, in Book 8.10 of the Ecclesiastical History, gives a description of the persecution in Alexandria from an eyewitness named Phileas:

And the spectacle of the outrages was varied and exhibited great malignity. For some, with their hands bound behind them, were suspended on the stocks, and every member stretched by certain machines. Then the torturers, as commanded, lacerated with instruments2542 their entire bodies; not only their sides, as in the case of murderers, but also their stomachs and knees and cheeks. Others were raised aloft, suspended from the porch by one hand, and endured the most terrible suffering of all, through the distension of their joints and limbs. Others were bound face to face to pillars, not resting on their feet, but with the weight of their bodies bearing on their bonds and drawing them tightly.

6. And they endured this, not merely as long as the governor talked with them or was at leisure, but through almost the entire day. For when he passed on to others, he left officers under his authority to watch the first, and observe if any of them, overcome by the tortures, appeared to yield. And he commanded to cast them into chains without mercy, and afterwards when they were at the last gasp to throw them to the ground and drag them away.

7. For he said that they were not to have the least concern for us, but were to think and act as if we no longer existed, our enemies having invented this second mode of torture in addition to the stripes.

8. “Some, also, after these outrages, were placed on the stocks, and had both their feet stretched over the four2543 holes, so that they were compelled to lie on their backs on the stocks, being unable to keep themselves up on account of the fresh wounds with which their entire bodies were covered as a result of the scourging. Others were thrown on the ground and lay there under the accumulated infliction of tortures, exhibiting to the spectators a more terrible manifestation of severity, as they bore on their bodies the marks of the various and diverse punishments which had been invented.

9. As this went on, some died under the tortures, shaming the adversary by their constancy. Others half dead were shut up in prison, and suffering with their agonies, they died in a few days; but the rest, recovering under the care which they received, gained confidence by time and their long detention in prison.

10. When therefore they were ordered to choose whether they would be released from molestation by touching the polluted sacrifice, and would receive from them the accursed freedom, or refusing to sacrifice, should be condemned to death, they did not hesitate, but went to death cheerfully. For they knew what had been declared before by the Sacred Scriptures. For it is said,2544 ‘He that sacrificeth to other gods shall be utterly destroyed,’2545 and, ‘Thou shalt have no other gods before me.’

However, as we see in the readings from Peter, not everyone withstood persecution so well. These people are the lapsed, much discussed several decades earlier in St Cyprian of Carthage’s works. Peter’s discipline for the lapsed in his Canons represents the standard line of what would be the mainstream tradition, that different offenders or kinds of lapse require different severities or lengths of penance and excommunication before restoration to fellowship, and clerics who lapse are to be cut off from ministry ever after.

Theodore Balsamon

Along with the canons of Peter, we find commentary by Balsamon and Zonaras. Theodore Balsamon (c. 1130 to after 1195) was Patriarch of Antioch (although he stayed in Constantinople), hegoumenos of Blachernai and the monastery called to Zipon, and a major canonist; that is, he compiled documents pertinent to canon law and commented on them, particularly those of the Nomokanon in Fourteen Titles which is the main source of Byzantine canon law, including many texts otherwise now lost and seeking to revise statements that were contradictory or obsolete. Interestingly, this is the same period as Gratian in the West and some of the major Latin canonists, as well.

Zonaras

Zonaras (d. after 1159) was a historian, theologian, canonist, and court official under Emperor Alexius I (1048-1118). After the death of Alexius, Zonaras left the civil service and became a monk at the monastery of St Glykeria. Besides writing commentaries on a number of sources for canon law, he also wrote an Epitome Historion, running from creation to death of Alexius in 1118. His perspective on running the empire was based on the Roman ideal of bureaucracy and officialdom, thus of meritocracy, over against the more feudal or “seigneurial” style of Alexius.

Clement of Alexandria

Tomorrow, March 6, we begin reading Clement of Alexandria. I present Dan’s introduction from 2013, with slight modifications in 2020 [in square brackets] and an updated list with translations beyond English.

Icon of Clement

The life and career of Titus Flavius Clemens (Clement in English) mark the ascendancy of Alexandrian theology. Whereas Clement’s contemporary, the sarcastic Latin lawyer Tertullian (whom we read next) famously asked, “What hath Athens to do with Jerusalem?” the Alexandrians answered that pagan philosophy had a vital role to play in bringing the world to Christian faith. For better or worse, Clement had an almost reckless confidence that pagan philosophy was the underpinning of Christian truth, so that Christ fulfilled not only the law of Moses but also the myriad attempts of pagan thought to discern the immutable nature of all things true, good, and beautiful.

Biography

Clement was born to wealthy pagans in Athens sometime in the middle of the second century. Given the breadth of learning displayed in his writings, he was undoubtedly well traveled. We learn from an autobiographical brief in Stromateis 1.2 that his education under a variety of teachers took him from Greece to Sicily [to Syria-Palestine] to Egypt, where his career as a student of Christian philosophy seems to have begun upon meeting Pantaenus (c. 180), the master of the catechetical school in Alexandria at that time. (Clement’s intellectual pilgrimage is reminiscent of that of Justin  Martyr). The learned circles of Alexandria at the time melded Hellenistic and Judaic religious sensibility, which is evident in Clement’s thought. Clement became the master of the Alexandrian school around 190. According to tradition, Clement suffered martyrdom during the persecution under Septimius Severus sometime after 203.

[Between 203 and 215, Clement joined his friend Bishop Alexander in Cappadocia. By 216, Clement is dead. There is no contemporary record of him having been martyred.]

Clement was [possibly] the teacher of Origen (whom we will read later), the third-century Egyptian prodigy who popularized the Alexandrian approach to theology, in particular its exegesis. Clement failed to attain to universal acclaim in later Christendom. His [possible] pupil Origen  suffered posthumous condemnation at the [time of the] second council of Constantinople in 553 [that this is not an official part of the council, see Aidan Kimel, Apocatastasis: The Heresy that Never Was, besides the translation of the Acts of Constantinople], and the eclecticism of Clement’s theological works led Photius of Constantinople to criticize them sharply in the ninth century, [particulary his Christology]. [Photius read Clement and his use of terminology through a ninth-century lens, thus falsely colouring his orthodox meaning.] Clement all but disappeared from western calendars by the seventeenth century, having achieved little recognition except among the non-Chalcedonian churches of the east, such as the Coptic church.

Clement thus stands as a threshold figure, representing a passage from the era of the apostolic charism of theological intuition and the vigor of the apologists to an age of intellectual acuity and precise theological definition. In Clement, we begin to see Christianity more fully “plunder the Egyptians,” taking pagan philosophy captive and turning it to its own purposes, which culminated in the first three general councils and the formulae of Nicea ratified at Constantinople.

Works

Clement is best known for three principle works: the Protrepticus (“Exhortation to the Greeks”), the Pedagogus (“The Instructor”), and the Stromateis (“Miscellanies”). In addition, “Who is the Rich Man who Shall be Saved?” is a surviving work of Clement’s, written to exhort some of his wealthier Christian students not to despair over their salvation, and to maintain a disposition toward riches in keeping with that taught in the gospel. There are numerous “lost” works by Clement, the one worth mentioning being the Hypotyposes, or “Outlines,” which, according to Photius, was an “impious” work of esoteric speculation about the heavenly hierarchies.

The Exhortation to the Greeks is a polemic against pagan thought. Clement here strives to demonstrate the utter undesirability of pagan religion and theology, and to encourage his Greek audience to abandon the ignorant worship of malignant and misanthropic deities  in favor of the worship of the true God of Christianity. The Instructor is a reflection of somewhat less consequence, which focuses on the practical elements of Christian discipleship. Here we see Clement not as a polemicist but as a tutor, schooling his audience in the basics of  the moral life and Christian piety. [The heavy hand of the 2020 admin: Matthew thinks that The Instructor is very important for the development of Christian asceticism and should not be passed over so lightly.]

The Miscellanies is a work of tremendous scope and varied interests; it seems to be more a sketchbook of thoughts than a theological treatise with a unified intention. Nevertheless, it is from this work that we encounter Clement’s overall theological perspective.  The work is an attempt to develop a Christian gnosticism. The Miscellanies, therefore, brings Clement more fully into view as a metaphysician and speculative theologian.

Theology

Clement of Alexandria, engraving from Les vrais pourtraits et vies des hommes illustres grecz by Andre Thevet (1584)

The most noteworthy element of Clement’s theology is his belief that philosophy is as divine a preparation for the gospel as the law and the prophets of the Old Testament (cf. Strom. 1.5, 20; similar to Justin Martyr). Whereas many of Christendom’s most prolific writers, such as Tertullian and Hippolytus, had been trying to pin heresy on the influence of Greek philosophy among Christians, Clement sees in philosophy the prospect of a “preliminary cleansing” which prepares students to receive the faith. So we see that Clement’s eclecticism did have a conservative purpose: not to sow pagan tares in the midst of Christian wheat, as it were, but rather to till the soil of paganism such till it was capable of finding its fulfillment in Christ. Hence, Clement proposes a version of “gnosticism” that is quite Christian: theology is the culmination of a course of study which ascends the heights of mystical truth by way of the pedagogy of pagan thought. We must note that for Clement, the successful student will outgrow the pedagogue: therefore, Clement’s eclecticism is best understood not as an affirmation of the efficacy of paganism to convey the truth, but rather as an affirmation of the gospel to make better sense of paganism than paganism can make of itself.

In speculating about apokatastasis, or “restoration,” Clement is the first known Christian writer to refer to the fire of hell as a purifying fire, a “wise fire that penetrates the soul” (Strom. 7.6). So it is that the wrath of God is understood by Clement as remedial, even therapeutic: “God does not take vengeance, which is the requital of evil for evil, but he chastises for the benefit of the chastised” (Strom. 7.16). The chastisement of divine wrath is intended as an aid in the divine therapy of man’s deification, the end toward which knowledge (gnosis) is most expedient. For knowledge of God presupposes conformity to God’s very self, and conformity to God is the sum of salvation. According to Clement, it seems that all rational beings, by virtue of their rationality, when they encounter the divine substance in the form of a consuming fire, will invariably somehow be brought to genuine gnosis, to conformity to divine truth, in the end. While the universalist implications of this teaching would be condemned in 553, we will see the idea of apokatastasis recur in the writings of several other eastern church fathers, particularly Gregory of Nyssa.

Finally, Clement may be credited as an early proponent of the fourfold interpretation of Scripture (cf. Strom. 1.27)It is not necessary to develop this point very much, as Origen is the Alexandrian exegete most notable for his allegorical interpretations. Let it suffice to say that Clement’s use of Scripture is influenced by his bent towards metaphysics, yet, as is most common with early Christian allegory, his conservative method results in very little overt mishandling of the biblical texts. [Furthermore, Christian allegoresis always has the exaltation of Christ as its goal.]

Alternate Translations 

English

There has been a re-publication of the ANF translation in an affordable volume edited by Paul A. Boer.

The Loeb Classical Library has published a critical edition, both in Greek and in English, of the “Exhortation to the Greeks,” “The Rich Man’s Salvation,” and a fragment titled “To the Newly Baptized” (trans. G. W. Butterworth).

The Instructor has been translated as Christ the Educator by Simon P. Wood in the Fathers of the Church series.

Miscellanies, Books 1-3, has been translated as Stromateis, Books One to Three, by John Ferguson in the Fathers of the Church series.

Miscellanies Book 7 was translated by E. J. A. Hort and J. B. Mayor in 1902.

Substantial excerpts and helpful commentary can also be found in the Library of Christian Classics volume Alexandrian Christianity (ed. Henry Chadwick) and in Henry Bettenson’s The Early Christian Fathers.

French

Le Protreptique, Sources chrétiennes 2, pp. 52-94, C. Mondésert et A. Plassart.

Le Pédagogue, les Stromates, Discours aux Gentils, Quel riche peut-être sauvé ?

Le Pédagogue, Sources chrétiennes, vols. 70, 108, 158, vois aussi la traduction de B. Troo, Paris, 1991.

Les Stromates, Sources chrétiennes, vols. 30 [Stromate I], 38 [Stromate II], 463 [Stromate IV], 278 [Stromate V], 279 [Stromate V], 446 [Stromate VI], 428 [Stromate VII]

Quel riche sera sauvé? Sources chrétiennes, vol. 537.

German

Protrepticus, O. Staehlin und U. Treu, Die griechischen christlichen Schriftsteller, Band 12: Clements Alexandrinus I. 1972, pp. 1-86.

Paedagogus. O. Staehlin, BKV II (Bibliothek der Kirchenvaeter, Zweite Reihe. Munich, 1932-1938): 7 (1934), 204-297 [Buch I], BKV II 8 (1934), 7-233 [Buch II-III].

Stromata. O. Staehlin, BKV II 17 (1936), 11-324 (Buecher I-III), 19 (1937), 11-355 [Buecher VI-VI], 20 (1938), 9-114 [Buch VII].

Klemens von Alexandrien: Die Teppiche (Stromateis), J. Overbeck. Basel 1936.

Further Studies

Eric Osborn has published a study of Clement’s synthesis of the apostolic faith and classical philosophy in Clement of Alexandria (Cambridge, 2008), and the series of Oxford Early Christian Studies has published an interesting Orthodox take on Clement’s apophatic mystical theology, Clement of Alexandria and the Beginnings of Christian Apophaticism. Also, for an enjoyable apologia for the Alexandrian allegorical method as well for the eclecticism of Alexandrian fathers such as Clement and Origin, see John Henry Newman’s The Arians of the Fourth Century, a dated yet pertinent work regarding Alexandrian dominance at the creative edge of Christian theology.

[Of interest to those wary of Clement: P. Ashwin-Siejkowski, Clement of Alexandria on Trial: The Evidence of ‘Heresy’ from Photius’ Bibliotheca, Brill 2010.

See also the chapter on Clement in H. Chadwick, Early Christian Thought and the Classical Tradition. Oxford, 1984.]

Where to read Tatian

Tomorrow we begin Tatian the Assyrian (c. 120 – c. 180), student of Justin Martyr. Tatian is most famous for his Gospel harmony, the Diatessaron, but here at Read the Fathers, we’ll be reading his apologetic work, Address to the Greeks.

Besides the translation in ANF 2:65-83, you can find this work in the following translations:

English

Oratio ad Graecos and Fragments. Ed. and trans. M. Whittaker. Oxford Early Christian Texts. Oxford 1982.

French

Recherches sur le Discours aux Grecs de Tatien. Trad. A. Puech. Paris, 1903, pp. 107-158.

German

Bibliothek der Kirchenväter, 2. Auflage, hrsg. von O. Bardenhewer u. a. Erste Reihe. Band 12 (1913), 195-257.

Italian

Taziano il Siro. Discorsi ai Greci: Apologetica cristiana e dogmi delle cultura pagana. A cura di S. di Cristina. Roma 1991.

Spanish

Padres Apologistas Griegos (s. II). Introducciones, texto griego, versión española y notas de D. Ruiz Bueno. Madrid 1954, pp. 572-628.

The Shepherd of Hermas

Good Shepherd, Catacombs of Priscilla (3rd century), Rome

Today we go back in time to a text that properly belongs to the Apostolic Fathers, the Shepherd by Hermas, written between 90 and 150. This work is a series of visions experienced by a Christian in Rome named Hermas, a contemporary of Clement’s, accompanied by Hermas’s interpretation of them. It seems likely that Hermas was a freedman. As far as dating goes, the Muratorian Canon from around 170 (one of our earliest lists [if not the earliest] of the New Testament) lists him as the brother of Pius, Bishop of Rome who died in the year 154.

On one hand, then, it is an apocalypse by genre. On the other, it is not unlike the writings of many medieval mystics that similarly recounted their visions and the interpretation of them. I make that second statement with some caution, given that a Jewish-Christian context such as Hermas’ is very different from a High Medieval German Christian writing in Latin like St Hildegard.

Themes

The Shepherd is focussed upon questions to do with piety and holiness, wrestling especially with the question of postbaptismal sin — are repentance and forgiveness available to those who sin after baptism. Hermas is not the only person to grapple with this question, and it certainly does not go away at this time. Indeed, in one form or another, the question of how God’s mercy operates in relation to baptised persons who sin, will continue throughout the Middle Ages and into the Reformation. It may seem distant to the modern Christian, but it was a very real concern for people like Hermas.

Hermas, like so many Christians old and new, is a moralist who also wants to affirm the mercy of God. The visions recounted here are a means of maintaining the tension between a high call to holiness and the mercy of the God who calls His worshippers to said holiness.

A second theme is also one common to Christians old and new, that of the relationship between rich and poor. As a freedman, Hermas seems to represent a somewhat lower status than 1 Clement (as Holmes says in his introduction), but I would not make too much of that. For one thing, both Hermas and 1 Clement (as Holmes also says) represent the same concern with Christian piety.

Reception of this text

Although less popular than many other ancient Christian texts, Hermas’ Shepherd was very popular in its own day, and is better attested in the earliest manuscripts than some texts from the New Testament. In fact, some Christians included it in their Bibles, as attested by the Muratorian Canon that some people seem to have been treating it in such a way. It was not included not because it is not helpful, but because it is after the apostles.

Translations

The Shepherd of Hermas can be found in most of the same places as the Apostolic Fathers, besides (of course) ANF 2:

Michael W. Holmes has produced a parallel Greek-English edition as well as a less expensive English-only text.

See also Bart Ehrman’s two volumes for the Loeb Classical Library and Francis Glimm’s volume for the Fathers of the Church.

Graydon F. Snyder, The Shepherd of Hermas gives a translation and commentary.

Introducing Irenaeus of Lyons

Irenaeus of Lyons

Because this introduction is something of a long read, I am posting it a day in advance. Tomorrow, January 12, we begin On the Detection and Overthrow of the False Knowledge/Gnosis, commonly known as Against the Heresies, by Irenaeus of Lyons. This is the longest work we’ve encountered, and it is dense. The introduction will be a bit fuller as a result. Because of the difficulties many have in reading this work, each of the five books will have a brief introduction of its own as we progress through the work, although Book 1 will get its introduction as part of today’s general introduction.

We shall consider Irenaeus’ life, his works, the main themes and famous parts of Against the Heresies, and the structure of the work before listing translations and other works for further reading. Today’s post is very long for Internet reading, so feel free to skip along through the headings of the sections below to what interests you. But I do hope that if you read the whole post, you will be better equipped to appreciate Irenaeus.

The life of Irenaeus

Irenaeus was not from Lyons. Like many early theologians and Christian philosophers, Irenaeus was from Asia Minor. He lived from around  AD 120 to around 200. Before leaving his homeland, he heard Polycarp of Smyrna preach. He was a presbyter (priest) among the Christian community at Lyons by 177, at which time he represented the community on a trip to Rome.

The context of this visit to Rome was the martyrdom of many Christians at Lyons, as recounted by Eusebius, Ecclesiastical History 5.1-3. Irenaeus was to become bishop of Lyons, where he lived, as he himself notes, among people of a barbaric tongue. However, given that he had come on established trade routes to a major city of Gaul, and given that he writes in Greek for a Greek audience (probably in Rome), Lyons is probably not as much of a backwater as it may sound — although it may have felt that way, sometimes!

Works of Irenaeus

None of Irenaeus’ works survives entire in the original Greek. Besides Against the Heresies, Irenaeus wrote a surviving work entitled Proof of the Apostolic Preaching which survives for us in an Armenian translation, coming to the West only in 1904. According to John Behr, Irenaeus of Lyons, this work was written after books 1 and 2 of Against the Heresies but before the rest (p. 69). This work is an abridgement of Irenaeus’ anti-heretical theology as found in Against the Heresies. He also wrote now-fragmentary letters of an indeterminate number, dealing with questions such as the sole sovereignty of God, schism, the Ogdoad, and the date of Easter.

Against the Heresies survives complete only in a Latin translation, although a number of Greek fragments do exist as quotations elsewhere. It is a work in five books, as the original title shows, against ‘so-called knowledge’ — against groups that would come to be considered ‘Gnostic’. It was written at various stages when Irenaeus was bishop of Lyons, probably with an audience in Rome. This work was known to Eusebius who quotes from it frequently in the original Greek.

Main themes and famous parts of Against the Heresies

Obviously, a main theme of Against the Heresies is the definition of orthodoxy and true knowledge against that of the false teachers whom Irenaeus has encountered. Based on his descriptions of his opponents’ teaching, we can see that Irenaeus had access to certain original ‘Gnostic’ documents, particularly of the local Ptolemaeans of Gaul, as well as some second-hand documents by other (proto-)orthodox Christians.

As a result of his focus on the Gnostic movement and his opposition to it. one of the main themes that runs through Irenaeus’ work is how to define orthodoxy and where the authority for making such a definition lies. Thus, Irenaeus is one of our earliest witnesses for the ‘rule of faith‘, for statements that are essentially credal. One such example from Irenaeus is found at Against the Heresies 1.10.1:

The Church, indeed, though disseminated throughout the world, even to the ends of the earth, received from the apostles and their disciples the faith in one God the Father Almighty, the Creator of heaven and earth and the seas and all things that are in them; and in the one Jesus Christ, the Son of God, who was enfleshed for our salvation; and in the Holy Spirit, who through the prophets preached the Economies, the coming, the birth from a Virgin, the passion, the ressurrection from the dead, and the bodily ascension into heaven of the beloved Son, Christ Jesus our Lord, and His coming from heaven in the glory of the Father to recapitulate all things, and to raise up all flesh of the whole human race, in order that to Christ Jesus our Lord and God, Savior and King, according to the invisible Father’s good pleasure … (Trans. Unger and Dillon, Ancient Christian Writers series)

He is also one of our earliest witnesses for Apostolic Succession — the idea that Christian truth has been handed down in an unbroken succession from the Apostles to this day through bishops, and these bishops are the people with the authority to teach in the church and to lead the church.

Furthermore, Irenaeus is an early witness to the fourfold Gospel — Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John — to which he allows no additions, such as the various gospels associated with the Gnostic movements.

All of these things for which he is famous as one of the earliest expositors are in this book as part of his anti-Gnostic arsenal.

Irenaeus is also famous as an exponent of Christus Victor atonement theology, also called the Classic View (or, as in Gustav Aulén’s book Christus Victor,  theClassic Idea). To quote Aulén:

It is the Word of God incarnate who overcomes the tyrants which hold man in bondage; God Himself enters into the world of sin and death, that He may reconcile the world to Himself. Therefore Incarnation and Atonement stand in no sort of antithesis; rather, they belong inseparably together. …

The work of atonement is … depicted in dramatic terms, as a conflict with the powers of evil and a triumph over them. This involves a necessary doublesidedness, in that God is at once the Reconciler and the Reconciled. His enmity is taken away in the very act in which He reconciles the world unto Himself. (Christus Victor, 50-51)

An aspect of this atonement theology in Irenaeus is anakephalaiosis, or recapitulation, made popular amongst evangelicals by Robert E. Webber’s book Ancient-Future Faith. This is the idea that Christ, in reconciling the world to God, is the second Adam, and he lives a full human life, his divine life cutting through human life, of eternity intersecting history. Through his holiness, divinity, and obedience, Christ recapitulates Adam and sets the whole human race free from bondage.

Sometimes this presentation of Christus Victor is misunderstood, and people think that Irenaeus has no room in his atonement theory for the cross. This is not true. It precisely on the cross and through his death that Jesus takes on and conquers the forces of evil.

Irenaeus summarises the theology of Against the Heresies in the final sentence of the work (as noted by John Behr):

For there is the one Son, who accomplished His Father’s will; and one human race also in which the mysteries of God are wrought, which the angels desire to look into; (1 Peter 1:12) and they are not able to search out the wisdom of God, by means of which His handiwork, confirmed and incorporated with His Son, is brought to perfection; that His offspring, the First-begotten Word, should descend to the creature (facturam), that is, to what had been moulded (plasma), and that it should be contained by Him; and, on the other hand, the creature should contain the Word, and ascend to Him, passing beyond the angels, and be made after the image and likeness of God. (Book 5.36.3; trans. ANF 1)

Structure of Against Heresies

Against the Heresies is divided into two main sections of unequal length. The first section is books 1 and 2, which focus on the Gnostic movement. The second section is books 3-5, a presentation of orthodoxy. John Behr writes:

If readers make it to book three, where Irenaeus begins an exposition of his own theology, many of the elements that he discusses are now so familiar to those who know something of Christian theology that, paradoxically, he is … a difficult figure to read because, laying all this out so fully for the first time in the history of Christian theology, he does so according to his own rationale, rather than the ‘logical’ order of Christian theology we might expect to see, and so he can … appear rather inept. (Irenaeus of Lyons, 73)

Book One – The teachings of Irenaeus’ opponents

Book Two – Why Irenaeus’ opponents are wrong

Book Three – Proofs from the Scriptures

Book Four – The teachings of Christ

Book Five – The apostolic epistles

Structure of Book One (from Behr, Irenaeus of Lyons, 85)

Book One: Refutation/Exposure of the Valentinians

Preface

I. The ‘Ptolemaean’ hypothesis (haer. 1.1-12)
Pleroma (haer. 1.1-3)
Creation (haer. 1.4-5)
Human beings (haer. 1.6-7)
Their use of Scripture (haer. 1.8-9)

II. The Ecclesial Rule of Truth and the Genealogy of the Valentinians (haer. 1.10-21)
The Rule of Truth (haer. 1.10)
The teaching of Valentinus and his followers on the Pleroma haer. 1.11-16)
Their teaching on the creation (haer. 1.17-19)
Their use of Scripture (haer. 1.20)
Their redemptive practices (haer. 1.21)

III. The Ecclesial Rule of Truth and the Genealogy of the Heretics (haer. 1.22-28)
The Rule of Truth (haer. 1.22)
The succession of the heretics (haer. 1.23-28)
The ‘Gnostics’ (haer. 1.29-1.31.2)

Conclusion (haer. 1.31.3-4)

Translations

English

Besides the translation of Alexander Roberts and William Rambaut in Ante-Nicene Fathers, Volume 1, to which we will link on the daily readings page. you can also find an English translation of books 1-3 with annotations in three volumes for Ancient Christian Writers:

St. Irenaeus of Lyons: Against the Heresies. Volume 1: Book 1. Translated and annotated by Dominic J. Unger, revised by John J. Dillon.  Ancient Christian Writers 55. New York: Paulist Press, 1992.

St. Irenaeus of Lyons: Against the Heresies. Volume 2: Book 2. Translated and annotated by Dominic J. Unger, revised by John J. Dillon. Ancient Christian Writers 63. New York: Paulist Press, 2012.

St. Irenaeus of Lyons: Against the Heresies. Volume 3: Book 3. Translated and annotated by Dominic J. Unger, revised by John J. Dillon and M. C. Steenberg. Ancient Christian Writers 64. New York: Paulist Press, 2012.

French

The only major translation I know of in French is that of Sources chrétiennes. It is a multilingual edition, using Greek alongside Latin where available, and with copious notes, thus stretching Against the Heresies into 10 volumes, edited by A. Rousseau, L. Doutreleau, C. Mercier, and B. Hemmerdinger, in volumes 100, 152, 153, 210, 211, 263, 264, 293, and 294. If you have access to a university library, this may be nice, mais …

There is another translation online, but I have no bibliographical details for it.  It is part of Lire le Pères (what a nice title!).

Other languages coming soon…

I promise to make a post about Spanish when I have a chance to find a Spanish translation…

Justin, Martyr and Philosopher

Originally published in 2012 by Kellen Funk; edits by Matthew in 2019 noted

Icon of Justin Martyr

Our next author, Justin, lived from about A.D. 100 to 165 and was thus a contemporary to most of the Apostolic Fathers from whom we just read. Justin, however, had no direct contact with apostles, and so he is often classed with Irenaeus and Athenagoras (whom we will read next) as one of the early apologists—a defender (ἀπολογία is Greek for defense) of Christian belief to the outside world.

Biography

Most of what we know of Justin’s life comes from his own writings, so we will encounter biographic details as we read. Though Justin was born in northern Palestine, he was a Gentile who was well educated in Greek language, literature, and philosophy. After finding dissatisfaction with Stoic, Aristotelian, Pythagorean, and Platonic philosophers, Justin converted to Christianity, strongly influenced by the bold and gracious witness of Christian martyrs.

Justin ever thought of himself as a philosopher, and after his conversion he continued to wear the distinctive robes of a philosopher and set up his own school of philosophy in Rome, where he defended his faith both in writing and in oral debate. After one such debate during the reign of Marcus Aurelius, Justin’s opponent Crescens, a Cynic, denounced him to the Roman authorities, who beheaded him along with several of his companions. From the transcript of the trial, Justin retained the honorific appellation “the Martyr.”

Works

Justin wrote his First Apology while in Rome during the reign of Antoninus Pius (138–161), to whom the work is addressed. The apology defends Christians against the charges of atheism (based on the Christian refusal to worship the gods of Rome) and of ritualistic brutality (based on rumors surrounding the Eucharist). Justin’s detailed explanation of Christian belief and ritual offer a fascinating glimpse of early church worship.

Justin Martyr, engraving from André Thevet, Les Vrais Pourtraits et Vies Hommes Illustres, 1584

Justin addressed a Second Apology to the Roman Senate, from which only fragments survive. Edit Dec 2019: The relationship between the two Apologies has been postulated in three ways: 1. Two Apologies; 2. One Apologies; 3. Two and a half Apologies.  Minns and Parvis in their edition for Oxford Early Christian Texts see the two most likely options as:  1. the First Apology is a petition to the emperors, the second is fragments from a mostly lost speech composed by Justin. 2. The Second Apology is fragments cut from the First Apology as Justin edited it.

Justin’s other major work is his Dialogue with Trypho the Jew, composed in the 130s. Although the early church historian Eusebius believed the debate to be a real event with a historic rabbi from Ephesus, more recent scholars are inclined to think the dialogue is merely a literary device Justin used in order to lay out his argument that Jesus of Nazareth fulfilled Messianic prophecy (although a recent work by Timothy Horner revives the argument for the historicity of Trypho).

For the other works included in our collection, Discourse to the Greeks, Address to the Greeks, On the Sole Government of God, and On the Resurrection, Justin’s authorship is highly doubtful. Only On the Resurrection has any real chance of being originally written by Justin, and only fragments of that work remain. Like the spurious epistles of Ignatius, however, these works are nevertheless examples of early Christian writings, as each was composed around the turn of the third century. See now Matthew’s post on the importance of pseudepigraphy.

Theology

Justin’s Apologies and Dialogue neatly map out the two cultural poles through which early Christianity navigated: the philosophy of the Greeks and the religion of the Jews, and aspects of both are captured in the concept of the Logos, the foundation of Justin’s theology.

Justin Martyr stained glass from the Church of St. Mary the Great, Cambridge (Credit: Lawrence OP / Foter / CC BY-NC-ND)

Logos (λόγος) is often translated word in English versions of the New Testament, most prominently in John 1:1–14 (a cherished text during this season of Advent). The Greek term carries a much broader meaning, however, akin to the English term rationality. In Stoic strands of Greek philosophy, the Logos was understood as a rational force that ordered the universe and was present in every human being. During the time of Christ, the Alexandrian Jew Philo likewise employed the term, explaining the Logos as the “reason of God” through which the universe was created.

Justin is clearly familiar with Stoic philosophy of the Logos and with the Apostle John’s additional teaching that the Logos was personally identifiable with God himself yet also fully tabernacled in a particular human being. Justin recurs often to the doctrine of the Logos to puzzle about how Christ the Logos could be both God and yet distinct in some way from the Father. He also uses the concept to argue against the Greek philosophers that Christianity, rather than representing just the religion of the poor and ignorant, is actually the highest and greatest of all philosophies.

As the Dialogue makes clear, Christians in the second century continued to wrestle with their relationship to Judaism. In arguing for the incarnation of the Logos to Trypho, Justin quotes liberally from the Septuagint (a translation of the Hebrew Bible into Greek), and he argues that Moses and the prophets foretold one who would set aside the law of the Jews and replace it with a law that was superior, universal, and eternal—the law of Christ.

Justin also quotes from what he calls the “memoirs of the Apostles,” identified at one point in the Apology as the “gospels.” Justin clearly relies on John’s teaching about the Logos, and he draws at length either on the other three gospels or on a single volume that harmonizes them (similar to Tatian’s Diatessaron, which we will read). In his Dialogue, Justin assumes their authority, treating them the same as the passages he cited from the Old Testament Scriptures.

Alternate Editions/Translations

If you happen to reside near a well-endowed academic library, you may have access to the Oxford Early Christian Texts volume of Justin’s Apologies, edited and translated by Dennis Minns and Paul Parvis, which represents the best of recent scholarship on the Greek manuscripts and presents the Apologies in a Greek-English diglot.

For those simply seeking a more modern English translation, Thomas Falls provides a useful volume covering all of Justin’s writings, including the apocryphal works. Falls’s work on the Dialogue has recently been updated in a new volume by Thomas Halton.

Other recent translations of the Apologies are Leslie William Barnard’s for the Ancient Christian Writers series, and E.R. Hardy’s for Early Christian Fathers, a volume that includes most of the Apostolic Fathers literature and a selection from Irenaeus (our next reading) in addition to the First Apology.

Added Dec 2019: If your Greek and palaeography skills are good enough, you can read Justin’s works in the manuscript Paris, Gr. 450 (from 1364):

 

The Apostolic Fathers

Saint Polycarp, seventeenth-century engraving by Michael Burghers

We begin our reading with the writings of the Apostolic Fathers, the traditional name for the authors of the oldest extant Christian literature outside the New Testament. This diverse group of writers—several of them anonymous—lived and wrote during or shortly after the time of the apostles themselves, and their writings reflect a concern for church authority after the passing of Christ’s first disciples.

Biography

The Apostolic Fathers whose names we know were all leaders in the early church, and some corresponded with one another. Clement led the church in Rome during the late first century. Origen (whom we’ll read later this year) speculated that he may have been the Clement named by Paul in Philippians 4:3, but no details of his biography are known. Polycarp was the bishop of the church in Smyrna for several decades around the start of the second century. He was a central figure who helped Christians navigate the perils of state-sponsored persecution, and he died a martyr at the age of eighty-six years old. Ignatius, a close associate of Polycarp, led the church in Antioch. In his letters Ignatius expresses an almost macabre yearning for martyrdom, perhaps attempting to steel himself for inevitable persecution or overstating his example to his flock. Ignatius was indeed martyred in the early second century during the Emperor Trajan’s reign. Finally, Papias presided as bishop of Hierapolis. A contemporary of Polycarp and reputed (by Irenaeus) to be a disciple of the Apostle John, Papias authored a popular work that exists only in small fragments today.

Places of origin and destinations of the Apostolic Fathers’ writings (Rome excluded)

Virtually nothing is known about the author or recipient of the Epistle to Diognetus or the so-called Epistle of Barnabas. The former is the earliest recorded instance of Christian apology (defense of the faith), while the latter takes up the issue of Christianity’s relationship to Judaism, engaging in the sort of allegorical interpretation of scripture that became popular in Alexandria in the following centuries. Eight other letters attributed to Ignatius were not actually written by him, but because they were written in or before the sixth century, they are included in our reading as a useful example of later Christian arguments against heresy.

Works

Clement’s sole surviving work is his Epistle to the Corinthians, which he wrote probably during the 90s to deal with many of the same problems that the Apostle Paul had addressed in the church. Likewise, only one letter of Polycarp’s survives, the Epistle to the Philippians, written apparently after the Philippians requested that Polycarp instruct them on the topic of righteousness. The letter mentions the recent death of Ignatius, thus dating it in the early 100s.

Icon of Ignatius of Antioch

Ignatius wrote his seven authentic Epistles while traveling under armed guard to Rome to face martyrdom (again, in the early 100s). In the ANF edition, we recommend giving closer attention to what are called the “shorter” versions of the epistles. Modern scholars know these as the “middle recension” and regard them the authentic epistles. The “long” version is a later interpolation, perhaps by the same person who wrote the spurious epistles, while the Syriac versions reflect a later, shorter redaction (now called the “short recension”).

If you are using a different edition of Ignatius — Lightfoot/Holmes’ The Apostolic Fathers, or Lake/Ehrman’s Loeb, or Staniforth/Louth’s Penguin Classic Early Christian Writings — you will be reading the “middle recension.” All of these editions are based on the work of J. B. Lightfoot.

The fragments from Papias come from his work Expositions of the Sayings of the Lord, written around 130. The Epistle of Barnabas likely comes from the first half of the second century, the Epistle to Diognetus from the second half.

Several works that properly belong to the literature of the Apostolic Fathers are not on our schedule for these first few weeks but will appear later (largely because they were discovered and translated as the ANF was being compiled in the nineteenth century). Those works include II Clement, the Didache, fragments from Quadratus, and the Shepherd of Hermas, all of which will be further introduced when we come to them in our reading.

Theology

Although the need to define themselves against the traditions of Judaism and the scrutiny of an increasingly aggressive state occupies some of their attention, a central theme running through the writings of the Apostolic Fathers is the search for church unity and authority, especially when direct appeal can no longer be made to one of Christ’s original apostles. For Clement and Ignatius, the office of the bishop is critical to resolving this problem. By apostolic appointment (in Clement’s view), or by his position as the representative of God in the church (in Ignatius’s view), the bishop is cloaked with authority to heal divisions within the assembly and to constitute the unity of the church.

A Vision of the Trinity, painted around 1735 by Giovanni Battista Tiepolo. Because Archbishop Clemens August commissioned the painting, Tiepolo depicted his namesake Clement of Rome as the one beholding the Trinity.

In this vein, internal strife and division within the churches attract much more attention than external threats of persecution or false philosophy. “Harmony” [ομονοια] is a key recurring term in Clement’s epistle, and Clement actually invokes the harmonious governance of Rome as a positive example for the church. Ignatius impresses on his readers that unity is the distinguishing mark of the true faith, while Polycarp instructs the Philippians that righteous belief is inseparable from righteous behavior, and the church must therefore be “joined together in the truth” as well as in “blameless conduct.”

One of the more fascinating elements in this search for authority is the light the Apostolic Fathers throw on the developing New Testament canon. In regulating Christian harmony, these writers clearly recognize and draw on the authority of the Hebrew Bible, particularly Genesis, Psalms, Proverbs, and the prophets. While none of the Apostolic Fathers explicitly discusses the possibility of new scripture, each exhibits familiarity with texts that would eventually form the New Testament canon. Clement appears to consciously follow Paul’s first letter to the Corinthians as a model. Polycarp and Ignatius both appear familiar with the epistles of Paul and, in the latter case, the gospel of Matthew. The boundaries of what may constitute sacred writings are not yet at all clear, however. Papias comments on the writing of Matthew, John, and the Revelation, all the while alluding to a larger oral tradition of Christ’s acts and teachings, only a part of which was written down (cf. John 21:25). Polycarp draws equally upon Clement’s Epistle as he does the writings of Paul, and he may well have been the one who first compiled the letters of Ignatius, perhaps with the intent to preserve sacred writ. As we read the Apostolic Fathers it should, however, become clear why later Christians ultimately retreated from including their writings in the New Testament canon.

Alternate Readings

For readers looking for a more modern translation of the Apostolic Fathers, we’ve already mentioned the work of Michael W. Holmes. Holmes has produced a parallel Greek-English edition as well as a less expensive English-only text.

Another recent translation is Maxwell Staniforth’s for Penguin Classics’ Early Christian Writings series.

Among the other patristics series we’ve recommended, see Bart Ehrman’s two volumes for the Loeb Classical Library, Francis Glimm’s volume for the Fathers of the Church, or volume 1 and volume 6 of the Ancient Christian Writers. These works also contain lengthier critical introductions to the Apostolic Fathers, with bibliographies.

Augustine of Hippo: Confessions, Letters, and City of God

Saint Augustine of Hippo, by Jacob Jordaens, ca. 1650.

Augustine of Hippo lived from 354 to 430, largely in North Africa where he served as a bishop for nearly thirty-five years. Augustine was a prolific author of theological treatises, sermons, and correspondence with significant figures across the Roman and Christian world. We will begin our reading with two of Augustine’s most famous works, the Confessions and the City of God.

Introductions to Augustine’s life and influence are abundant online. The standard academic biography is Peter Brown’s. A short and highly accessible introduction to Augustine, with an interesting argument on his cultural setting, is Justo Gonzalez’s The Mestizo Augustine.

Confessions

Augustine’s most famous work is The ConfessionsThe Confessions are an autobiographical account of Augustine’s life, beginning with his earliest memories and taking the reader up to his baptism and a mystical experience of God with his mother. In its final books, The Confessions also include theological reflections on Creation and the Book of Genesis. The work is the first autobiography in western history, and it has been enormously influential in shaping the western sense of self. (On this point, see Charles Taylor’s Sources of the Self.) But it is not an autobiography in exactly the form one might expect. It takes its title, The Confessions, from its structure, since the book is a long prayer of confession to God, in both the sense that it acknowledges Augustine’s sins but also in the sense that it confesses faith that God was directing his path. The work contains some of Augustine’s most well-known phrases, such as “our hearts are restless till they find rest in you” (book1), “return to your heart” (book 4), and “Descend that you may ascend, and ascend to God” (book 4). Where much of the work that we have read feels as ancient as it is, many readers find Augustine to be fresh and modern.

That easy familiarity with the text that many readers discover does much to explain the continued appeal of this book, but it also can lead readers astray. One assumption that readers make about the book is that it is a conversion narrative of the sort that they have encountered in the Book of Acts describing Paul’s conversion and then (leaping over a couple millennia) in their own religious experiences. Certainly many readers point to Augustine’s encounter in the garden where he reads the epistles as Paul as a kind of conversion experience. (As an aside, note that that scene happens in a garden, as does the first couple chapters of Genesis.)  The Confessions, however, describe many conversions that Augustine experiences. While reading, it may be worthwhile to note the moments where Augustine turns in his confessions, and what is at stake in each of those turnings. These include Augustine’s conversions to philosophy (book 3), to Manichaeism (book 3), to Catholic Christianity, to neoplatonism (book 7), to asceticism (book 8), to a mystical experience of God (book 9).

There are no shortage of translations of the Confessions. We heartily recommend Maria Boulding’s translation for the New City Press edition of Augustine’s works. Another good modern translation is Garry Wills’s translation for Penguin Classics. Readers looking for a scholarly text in Latin should try James J. O’Donnell’s edition published by Oxford, which also includes two volumes of commentary. Or you may prefer the two volumes (vol. 1, vol. 2) of the Confessions in Latin and English in the Loeb Classical Library.

Letters

After reading Augustine’s autobiography, we’ll gain another perspective on his life through reading his letters—around 270 total. The Confessions largely end with the death of Augustine’s mother Monica, before Augustine assumed the roles for which he became well known as a preacher, pastor, and polemicist. The letters shed light on how Augustine interacted with friends, resolved disputes between congregants, and admonished those he saw going astray.

In 1969, Johannes Divjak rediscovered an additional thirty letters dictated by Augustine. Those letters are not included on our current reading schedule, as there are no public domain versions available. But readers interested in these further glimpses at Augustine’s ministry may wish to consult the editions listed below.

The Loeb Classical Library has an edition of selected letters from Augustine. The full series, including the Divjak letters, are available in hardcover from New City Press’s twenty-first century translation of the works of Augustine: Letters 1-99, Letters 100-155, Letters 156-210, Letters 211-270 and Divjak.

City of God

Next to the Confessions, the City of God is Augustine’s most well-known work. Augustine wrote his masterpiece of political theology in response to the sack of Rome in 410. The work represents an extended meditation on the causes of the rise and fall of Rome, the ways in which political and spiritual societies interact, and the mysterious progress of the heavenly kingdom in the midst of political crisis.

Even today, entire branches of theology, political ethics, and constitutional theory—sometimes gathered under the term “political theology”—vigorously debate the application of Augustine’s City of God to modern politics. For a useful and clear overview of the various positions on Augustine’s thought, see Michael Bruno’s Political Augustinianism. A landmark work in this area is R. A. Markus’s 1989 book Saeculum, which argued that City of God helped to create a secular, de-sacralized arena of politics. Since Markus’s work, scholars have disputed whether Augustine’s thought is really compatible with secularization, and if so, whether that’s a virtue of his thought. Some approaches view Augustine as offering helpful advice to citizens no matter their religious orientation, for instance Eric Gregory’s Politics and the Order of Love. Others find Augustine presenting a distinctively Christian way to engage in political life, for instance Charles Mathewes’s A Theology of Public Life. For a complex treatment of both these views, see Oliver O’Donovan’s loosely related trilogy, Resurrection and Moral Order, The Desire of the Nations, and The Ways of Judgment.

There are several modern translations of the City of God. The daily readings link to the public domain text by Marcus Dods. New Century Press’s twenty-first century translation of Augustine has a two-volume paperback edition of City of God. R. W. Dyson produced a lucid, readable translation for the Cambridge History of Political Thought. And Penguin Press offers a very affordable modern translation by Henry Bettenson.

Eusebius of Caesarea

Eusebius of Caesarea

Eusebius of Caesarea

Eusebius of Caesarea (c. 260 – c. 341) was the most significant of the early historians of the church. His Ecclesiastical History was a chronicle of Christianity from Jesus to Constantine’s success in taking over the Roman Empire. Eusebius himself played a role in the most significant event of Christianity in the fourth century. As the bishop of Caesarea, Eusebius was one of the leaders of the semi-Arian party. He wrote about the events of his own day in his Life of Constantine. As historian and participant, Eusebius was vital to the transition of the Christian church from proscribed sect to dominant religion.

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Origen

The Ante-Nicene Fathers series included works by Origen earlier in our reading. But since we have returned to Origen for the remainder of the liturgical year, we are reposting our introduction to Origen.

origen

Icon of Origen

From the Latin West we now return to the Greek-speaking East and begin reading from one of the most influential fathers of Alexandrian school, Origen, who lived from around 185 to 255. Origen was a skilled textual scholar and prolific writer of theology and biblical commentary. Though some of his theological speculations garnered criticism in later ages, Origen’s ideas—and his style of interpreting scripture allegorically—strongly influenced many of the other fathers of the third and fourth centuries.

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